Season Food with Tears

My favorite quote comes from probably the most famous (and, depending on how you look at it, infamous) play about two young and doomed lovers: Romeo and Juliet. While this story of star-crossed lovers isn’t exactly my favorite​ on the whole, I believe that this play has some of the most memorable, quotable, and beautiful lines ​Shakespeare ever wrote. Who can forget the two Capulet servants exchanging lewd and bawdy exchange in the opening of the play? Or the Nurse telling the story of young Juliet falling down on her face? Or when Mercutio talks about the prick of noon? Ahem. Well, then.

As much as I would love to write about the sexual innuendos found in Romeo and Juliet, they are not the subject of today’s blog post. Rather, I would like to turn our attention a different character who would probably never say something so suggestive because he is a man of God: Friar Lawrence.

Like the other characters, the good friar has a few notable lines of his own, such as “These violent delights have violent ends” and “Wisely and slow, they stumble that run fast.” Friar Lawrence–as the god-fearing figure that stands of morality and good judgement in the blood-drenched society of Verona—gives counsel and provides insight (though, I would argue, ironically, because he does not give good advice, nor does he promote good judgement) to the other characters. ​Out of all his speeches, the one line that has resonated with me the most over the years comes from Act II, scene iii (you know, the scene that follows the Balcony scene).

The sun shines and warms the earth. Friar Lawrence, enjoying the morning, picks herbs for his medicine, when, suddenly, a jubilant Romeo greets him. This is quite the surprise, isn’t it? After all, Romeo has spent a good bit of Act ​I moping around Verona and sighing at how Rosaline, his crush, will never give him a chance because she plans on becoming a nun.

“I have fallen in love with Juliet Capulet, and we wish to marry as soon as possible!” the youth declares ​ (see 2.3.57-64 for the unparaphrased text).​

Wait, what? Wasn’t it just twenty-four hours ago when Romeo proclaimed that there was no other woman for him except Rosaline?

Friar Lawrence, as the young Montague’s confidant, has heard the tale of woe and unrequited love many times before. Isn’t it quite understandable that he might become a little frustrated with the sudden change of mind? In the midst of admonishing Romeo for following his hormones and not his heart, he (rhetorically) asks:

 

“How much salt water thrown away in waste,

To season love that of it doth not taste?”

 

Thank you, Friar Lawrence, for saying what we’ve been shouting at the​ page and/or screen. Romeo, what are you doing? What are you doing? You can’t just complain about unrequited love one moment and then say you want to get married the next!

Now, forgetting the context, can we just simply read and bask in the wonderful glory of this iambic rhyming couplet?

 

“How much salt water thrown away in waste,

To season love that of it doth not taste?”

 

Isn’t that just simply the most perfect and sublime piece of verse you have ever read? Well, if it isn’t, that’s okay. Hopefully by the end of this post, you’ll agree that it is, at least, a testament to Shakespeare’s creativity and genius.

First, I want to break down what the quote means​: Salt water, clearly enough, stands for tears, albeit the long and indirect way of saying it. Romeo, in the process of pining for his soon-to-be-nun, has ceaselessly cried and wasted his energies for a love that he can never have. Well, that was easy enough to translate.

Wait a minute. We’re not even close to being done yet.

Friar Lawrence uses the words “season” and “taste” Well, that seems a little weird that someone would use words like salt (water), season, and taste, unless, of course, that person is talking about food.

Hot damn, we have a metaphor on our hands. Friar Lawrence has just compared love to food. Even more than that, he just compared tears to a seasoning. Good grief, this is one colossal metaphor.

What could Friar Lawrence possibly be saying about love? After all, he just compared it to food.

Personally, I always imagined the friar suggesting that love is some sort of delicacy—an expensive dish, luxurious and indulgent. Love is meant to be savored and enjoyed. He could also be suggesting that love, like food, provides energy and sustenance required for humans to live. Without love, people simply die.

But what about the salt and the salt water?

Salt during the Renaissance was not only important as a seasoning but also as a preservative.

​Before refrigeration and ​the other delightful modern conveniences that help keep food fresh for long periods of time, people sprinkled salt over meat in order to preserve it. (Side note: bacteria and fungi cause food to spoil. Salt magically breaks down the protein in bacteria and fungi cell walls. Don’t ask me how, I’m not a biology or chemistry major). Because of its importance, salt became expensive.

As one of my friends (who actually is a biology major) once pointed out to me, s​odium has ​important bodily functions. Whether or not Shakespeare knew the importance of salt in the average person’s diet, the sentiment is still there: Romeo is throwing away a vital piece of himself in his aimless pursuit of Rosaline.

“Well,” you guys might be thinking, “this interpretation of the line is nice and all, but isn’t salt water quite literally what tears are? So how on earth can ‘salt water​’ be a metaphor at that point?”

​Shakespeare is using a type of a rhetorical device known as paronomasia, where one

word ​can stand for multiple​ meanings​ — in this case, figurative and literal​. “​Salt water” has the figurative meaning of the seasoning and the literal meaning of tears.

He wastes no words in order convey this sentiment. And who, other than William Shakespeare himself, can fit so much into two measly lines?

Shakespeare, you little rascal, you’ve done it again.

 

Tiffany

 

Learning to Love Shakespeare Again

I was introduced to Shakespeare’s work when I was eight years old. The elementary school I attended puts on a Shakespeare production every spring. Students in the third, fourth, and fifth grade classes are given roles and spend the months leading up to the production immersing themselves in the text, the history, and (my personal favorite) the Shakespearean insults. The Tempest was the first production in which I was cast. I was given the roles of a mariner and a hound (which I was quite pleased with, as playing these roles meant I was permitted to grace the stage with a beard drawn on with eyeliner and a set of fluffy dog ears). Rehearsal time was sacred to me, and I vividly remember giving dirty looks to the two dirt-covered boys whining in the corner about wanting to play flag-football instead.

I became more enthralled with Shakespeare’s work in the following years when I was cast as Oliver in As You Like it and Bottom in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. I poured myself into my roles. My teachers didn’t believe in giving us concrete instruction on how our roles were to be portrayed, so I was given the opportunity to discover my characters on my own. This unstructured and unguided freedom pushed me to research Shakespeare. During the evening hours I spent curled up with biographies, scripts, and illustrated pictures of the Globe, I fell in love with William Shakespeare.

Love doesn’t always last – especially in secondary schools. Shakespeare is taught in most every high school in the United States, with Macbeth and Romeo & Juliet falling somewhere between The Catcher in the Rye and The Great Gatsby. Placed between whimsical prose, Shakespeare’s verse is often met with groans. Verse is different: it’s weird, and it’s uncomfortable. People do not meet at the lockers and have a conversation in verse. Despite having wonderful and wise English teachers, I found myself irritated with Shakespeare. My class read the plays aloud from our desks, but the words sounded less harmonic than they did when I was eight. There was no stage to block a swordfight on and no character to embody. The play was more stagnant and less enjoyable. I underlined the metaphors and similes but found the task mundane by scene two. When it came time for my senior year English assessment, I prayed to be given any other work to analyze but Shakespeare.

I often tell recently dumped and heartbroken friends that if a relationship is meant to be then they’ll come back together one day. This fact is relevant because a year after graduating high school I applied for an internship at the American Shakespeare Center. I intern in workshop development, which means that I spend most of my days immersing myself in the Much Ado About Nothing script, searching for interesting tidbits to include in my workshop. In order to fully understand how to construct the workshop, I attend other workshops at the ASC. Most recently, I attended a series of workshops created for ASCTC, the ASC’s summer camp for high school students aged thirteen to eighteen (a.k.a the prime Shakespeare-detesting years). The workshops were lead by passionate and enthusiastic interns and employees who touched on topics ranging from rhetoric to dramaturgy. Although the campers spent a good majority of the workshop sitting in desks taking notes, I didn’t hear a single groan, snore, or fidget. Instead I heard thoughtful questions and comments as the class tackled some of the most difficult aspects of Shakespeare’s work. While impossible to believe, the instructor and the campers were having fun while covering terms that the majority of people are not exposed to until graduate school.

All my life I’ve been passionate about two things: the performing arts and education. I’ve been tirelessly searching for years for a way to help people understand just how critical the performing arts are in getting the most out of your education. The American Shakespeare Center understands that. More importantly, they live it. They recognize that Shakespeare speaks to everybody and that all they have to do is get people to listen. As I watched the campers get excited over cue scripts and iambic pentameter, I realized how much Shakespeare can teach us. His plays are mathematical, historical, and scientific. Performing in them gives a person confidence, poise, and an increased awareness of the world. Shakespeare’s plays appeal to everyone. People who enjoy math can search for inconsistencies in the iambic pentameter, people who enjoy history can cross reference how Shakespeare’s work mirrors historical events and time periods, people who are into science can dissect scenes in search of embedded stage directions, and people who love being the center of attention can have the times of their lives playing Hamlet or Macbeth.  Due to time constraints and standardized testing, many high school students never get the opportunity to see this. Don’t misunderstand me, I’ve found Shakespeare to be hard and frustrating, and I’ve spent many hours sitting at my desk in the intern alcove wanting to bang my head against the wall as I re-read a monologue for the 17th time and discover a rhetorical device I have failed to notice the first sixteen times. But, reading and analyzing a Shakespeare play is like putting together a puzzle. Each new rhetorical device discovered adds a connection and the pieces come together to reveal an incredible masterpiece. 

So here I am attempting to understand Shakespeare. Maybe it’s better to say that I am a detective searching for the clues that Shakespeare left behind. I am Sherlock Holmes searching for Waldo and Carmen Sandiego and I am having the time of my life. Every trochee noticed, elision discovered, and isocolon found excites me and reminds me of what an honor it is to be studying under such a brilliant mind. One day, I will take the information I’ve learned here and use it in my own classroom. Or, better yet, I will help encourage the performance and analysis of Shakespeare in classrooms across the country. In the meantime, I am learning to love Shakespeare again.

 

Christina Colón

 

What A Sweet Place It Is

As I make my transition from a Pennsylvania to a Virginia residence, I can’t help but relate to the little-black-dog-toting heroine Dorothy from The Wizard of Oz as she clicks her heels together and says, “There’s no place like home.”  The funny thing is, if I were actually wearing those magical ruby pumps, I’m not sure where they would take me.

When Milton Hershey broke ground on his chocolate factory in 1903, he probably had no idea that his name would eventually adorn an entire town (plus countless confection wrappers around the world). Hershey, PA, is my hometown: where I know the back roads, where I went to school, and where the bank tellers recognize me.  In his 1915 poem “The Death of the Hired Man,” Robert Frost remarks that “Home is the place where, when you have to go there, they have to take you in.”  As cynical as it sounds, the sentiment rings true for me. In both times of joy and stress, I relish the soft, safe, and established environment of my parents’ house.  I look back fondly on the time I spent in my first apartment nearby.

The first time I visited Staunton, as part of the Penn State Harrisburg Honors Program’s annual trip, I felt an strange familiarity with the town. It was like an old acquaintance with whom I delighted in reconnecting.  From the shops on Beverley Street to the local farmers’ market, I spent hours exploring the town with my friends. Each of the local eateries gave me a different flavor of Staunton. I quickly found, though, that my favorite part of the trip took place within the walls of the American Shakespeare Center’s Blackfriars Playhouse. As soon as the actors took up their instruments for that first pre-show, I was enthralled.  I had never been much for theatre, but this was a truly engrossing experience.  Sarah Fallon’s Dido in Dido, Queen of Carthage left me heartbroken and awed, while Ben Curns’s Richard in Richard III had me knowingly deceived and secretly seduced. Even though I had studied the plays, I had never seen them like this before. I knew that I wanted to be as much a part of this exhilarating experience as possible. After graduating in May with a degree in Secondary Education/English, I searched high and low for job opportunities that would allow me to pursue this passion. The situation looked bleak, but then entered the lovely folks at Mary Baldwin College to save the day. Thanks to Sarah Enloe’s referral, the coordinators of the Program for the Exceptionally Gifted reached out to me when they needed to hire an RA for their residence hall. For the past two weeks, I’ve been settling into my new apartment. In both my job and my internship, I get to teach and learn. The support I have received from my new colleagues is almost overwhelming, and I have yet to find a dour face among them.  This whole process has been a delightful whirlwind.

Here at the ASC, I feel honored to have been given the title of Conference Intern, meaning that I will be working to make this year’s Blackfriars Conference (from October 23-27) a smashing success. Just two weeks into the job, I can feel the anticipation building.  Having never worked with anything like this before, I’m learning worlds of new information every day, from the guidelines of stage combat to the definitions of the words plenary and colloquy. I’m so grateful to have been given this opportunity, and I am looking forward to what has already become a meaningful and rewarding experience.

So here I am, clicking my heels together. Every time I do, I find another piece of Staunton that feels like home.

- Rikki C

Melville, Nobokov, Marx, and the Duke

One of the most wonderful qualities of Shakespearean plays is their continual ability to influence our world today. Of course, our generation has widely used him in reference for pop songs and the occasional misquote, “I fell in love with you, and you smiled because you knew,” not to mention the frequent tattoo remarking on how little and fierce a woman can be. But we cannot overlook the grander ways that philosophers, poets, and innovators have used Shakespeare throughout the years. Some of the best works, quotes, and ideas can even come out of his more aspersed works, such as Timon of Athens (probably co-written with Thomas Middleton).

         

  Through my research of the play so far, I have come across some seemingly random congruences to Timon, the incredibly generous man suddenly churlish and alienated from the world he knew and loved when he thought it loved him back, the first being Herman Melville. While most critics saw Timon as a rancid tragedy, Melville saw it as a dark ironic voice and sought to compare it both to himself and to a few characters in his own works, such as ‘Jimmy Rose’ and The Confidence-Man. ‘Jimmy Rose’ tells the story of a man who, in the same air as the play, loses everything and is turned down by his own friends in the process of loss. The Confidence-Man interlaces Timon’s qualities into many different characters and includes a similar scenario to Timon and Apematus’ banters, pulled from Act 4 scene 3 of Timon. It is hard to overlook Melville’s personal Timon-like qualities, “regarding himself as an artist who, though surrounded by flatterers, was ultimately alone in the world.” (Dawson 42).

        

   Another work Timon inspired is the novel/poem Pale Fire by Vladimir Nobokov. The novel tells the story of a professor of literature, Charles Kinbote, who lives with the paranoid delusion that his life was an influential part of the 999-line poem written by his favorite poet, John Shade. Kinbote identifies with Timon and carries around a copy of the work as he is deemed insane and ends up as an alienated misanthrope. The title, “Pale Fire” is straight from Timon of Athens, Act 4 scene 3. The metaphor is meant to represent “nature’s cycle of thievery,” as the moon constantly steals her light from the sun and in Nobokov’s satirical fashion, exemplify critics who steal the ‘sun’ from their subjects (43).

   

A less intense and dark product of Shakespeare and Middleton’s work is the 1991 full-scale opera based on Timon. Written by Stephen Oliver, the opera takes the simple tragic route, keeping its distance from the darker and heavier motifs. Other composers influenced by Timon include Henry Purcell for Thomas Shadwell’s adaptation of the play, Benjamin Britten in 1935, and the most frequented for modern productions of Timon,Duke Ellington,

  

Lastly, Karl Marx’s theories of economy, money, and the control it has over everyone relates hardily to the relationship between nature and the artificial generation of money through systems of interest (202). Marx enjoyed Timon’s scathing scrutiny of the spiteful power of cash, as well as gold’s power over every single character in the play. He notes in his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 gold’s power to invert values; gold’s ‘visible divinity’, able to transform ‘all human and natural properties into their contraries’, and its role as the ‘common whore’ of people and nations. Alienation, of course, rang true in Marx’s mind throughout Act 4, as the act stresses the idea of gold’s hold over mankind.

  

  Now, those are only a few of the many works, music, and people Timon of Athens has influenced. If you were to look into any production of the show, you’d see people like Peter Brook who used it as a tool to experiment further with his idea of poor theatre! There is no end to Shakespeare’s (and Middleton’s, in this case) outstretch of inspiration or stimulus in the past, and for years to come. Hopefully, though, there will be fewer Taylor Swift songs that kind of get the ending wrong and defeat the purpose of a tragedy entirely.

Cheers!

Jess

  • Bibliography

Dawson, Anthony, and Gretchen Minton. The Arden Shakespeare: Timon of Athens. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2008. Print.

Good Day At Once!

As a new dramaturgical intern to ASC I am pretty super-stoked to strut around with my bright red name-tag beaming the much-desired sharpie-strewn words:

American Shakespeare Center
Intern
Jess Young
[FBI]

 Ok, taking it a little far, I admit, but I am beyond grateful for the chance to work at my little corner desk, my nose already stuffed into old archived dramaturgy packets and mind eager to get back into shape.

My initial calling in collegiate theatre was backstage work. I dabbled in set design and worked as a journeyman, running rotary shows at Wilson Hall (James Madison University) and then the (lovely, wonderful, magnificent (home)) Forbes Center. Needless to say, it has been a strange experience coming into a theatre job without the required closed toed shoes on and a wrench or Leatherman tied to my belt loop. It is just as well, though, as I am strangely content not having to do any heavy lifting…except with my brain. I am set with new challenges, having already bore through breakdowns of scenes, maps, language, etc.

Image
Breaking down scenes:  From Timon of Athens in which editors have determined that more satirical or theatrical scenes such as the mock banquet may have been written/dictated by Thomas Middleton rather than Shakespeare.

 My first dramaturgical task is to prepare materials to assist the Actors’ Renaissance Season actors prepare for their production of Shakespeare’s Timon of Athens, a play fixed on the themes of nature versus men, assays of friendship, and many alluding ties to cannibalism! Excuse my bloodlust, the last piece of Shakespeare I was able to dig my fingers into was a student-directed version of the Scottish play, in which I played 4 different characters, three of which died. While I find much joy in many of Shakespeare’s love stories and comedies, I cannot help but be enticed by his misanthropic and sometimes intimidating throes of vehemence in distrust, violence, skepticism and tragedy of which Timon has lightly brought back to my life.

Image

 Now that I’ve officially led you to believe I am most likely a buzz kill REALLY NICE PERSON, I want to say how happy I am here at the ASC, starting way back to those drama field trips in high school watching Twelfth Night, years later, being a part of A Midsummer Night’s Dream during intermission when, as part of the audience, I was volunteered to juggle, and simply magical nights when my friends and I decided we needed to see a show at the Blackfriars.

As my internship extends into October when I have the opportunity to be a part of the Seventh Blackfriars Conference I hope to gain as much as humanly possible here, in my corner desk or sitting in on rehearsals across the street as I make my own little dramaturgical packets!

Cheers!
-Jess Young

The Vision behind the Garments

Hello there, online Shakespeare aficionados. My name is Sadie Albert, and I am the Hospitality, Development, and Box Office intern. That’s right, Internet, I am a “Jack of all trades” intern, a curious dabbler, a girl absorbing as much knowledge as I can. Outside of the internship, I am a senior at James Madison University studying theatre and Spanish. I love music, coffee, and soccer. Above all, I love people, especially the unique stories that each person carries with her.

As I sat down to write my first blog post, I began to think about what I had learned so far as an intern. My favorite moment was when I had the chance of interviewing Erin West, the Costume Shop Manager and a costume designer at the American Shakespeare Center. She showed us the costumes that she was working on and the renderings for the Summer Season shows Romeo and Juliet, Return to the Forbidden Planet, and All’s Well that Ends Well. If that was not exciting enough, she took us to the attic of the Blackfriars Playhouse where I was able to see the costume storage. It’s like a fairytale up there. You could spend all day playing dress up. By looking at these costumes one thing is certain: the American Shakespeare Center prides itself on re-creating the world that Shakespeare lived via tools of the modern world.

The creative team blends contemporary approaches and design aspects with what the texts and historical evidence tell us Shakespeare’s company would have used in the early modern period. During Shakespeare’s career as well as at the American Shakespeare Center, the visual design fell nearly entirely to the costumes. Lighting design was sparse due to the lack of electricity, and large set pieces were expensive and heavy. There was no main curtain to drop for a scene change, so the words of the playwright created the setting. Shakespeare’s company, therefore, relied on costumes to aid the stories visually.

A major difference between theatre today and the theatre of Shakespeare’s time is that Shakespeare’s players dressed in what they knew. They did not design costumes that were historically accurate. For example, in Julius Caesar, it would seem logical to put the actors in togas according to the ancient Roman time period; however, in 1.2, Casca says, “he plucked me ope his doublet and offered them his throat to cut,” indicating that the actors were wearing doublets. As the above illustration of Titus Andronicus shows, they may have added faux-historical elements over Elizabethan-era clothing, but the base was still clothing that was modern for them.

Similarly, West tries to re-create that aspect of design, but with the knowledge and aesthetic sensibilities of our modern day. This method of design separates the Blackfriars Playhouse from many other theatres. Jim Warren and Ralph Alan Cohen founded the American Shakespeare Center to make Shakespeare more accessible and to help audiences understand his language, theatre and life. The costumes tell the story behind the character, even before a character opens his or her mouth. For example, in a recent production of Julius Caesar, the actor who played Caesar wore a modern day suit. The audience may not know much about ancient Roman history, but the suit explains what “type” of character he is merely by how he dresses. Likewise during Shakespeare’s time, the costume may not have been historically accurate, but would have provided the audience with an idea of who the character was even before he spoke.

End note: My supervisor, Heidi Findlay gathered the stories from the conversation with Erin and put together a fundraiser to raise money for the costume shop. $4,800 was raised, which was about 4x the anticipated goal of $1,300. Many people who donated shared their own personal stories. The entire fundraiser was special because all of the donors felt like they had a connection to Erin. Link to the fundraiser: http://www.americanshakespearecenter.com/v.php?pg=1590
– Sadie Albert

Shakespearean Staging for the Agriculturally Inclined

Last week as I was burying myself alive in the archive closet, I came across a rather intriguing article.  Written in 1995 for the Harrisonburg Daily News Record, the article relayed how the Shenandoah Shakespeare Express performed in a livestock sale arena for visiting scholars of the “Center for Renaissance and Shakespearean Staging.”  I was particularly interested in the article because I am the fifth generation of a farming family that has been active in showing and selling animals in various venues, including the local Market Animal Show at the Staunton Union Stockyard.  As a participant of MAS, it’s hard to imagine actors performing Shakespearean plays in the same place where I sold a cow.  So, at first, the idea of performing Shakespeare in such a setting seems a little bit odd and quirky.  I had never heard of anyone doing this before.  However, the writer of the article wrote that Shakespeare and his actors probably would have “performed on stages that might have hosted a disgusting session of bearbaiting just the day before.”  With this in mind, it doesn’t seem quite as strange to imagine actors performing in a sale arena.

In fact, the atmosphere of a livestock sale arena seems perfectly tailored for Shakespearean plays, especially the way the American Shakespeare Center does them.  If you’ve never been to a livestock sale (I highly recommend going to one just for the experience) and are unfamiliar with the setting, it is an extremely interactive, lively event.  Livestock arenas are usually set up as semicircular amphitheatres, with the sale ring surrounded on three sides similar to the thrust stage at the Playhouse.  Much like a production at the Blackfriars Playhouse, there are major audience interactions in the “show”:  the auctioneer talking at a pace that seems faster than the speed of light, the people talking on their cell phones taking bids, hands and cards shooting up out of the crowd, the tired child somehow asleep among all the noise and movement.  There is always something going on, something to pay attention to.  While all this is going on around an idle observer, the observer has their own responsibility to not raise their hand.  Nobody wants to be that person who simply wanted to scratch his or her nose and ended up buying a cow.  Thus, one must make sure to control their movements so as not to cause any kinks in the sale process.  This could be comparable to a cell phone ringing during a performance at the Blackfriars Playhouse.  Just as you draw attention to yourself by accidentally bidding on an animal, a ringtone or vibration will turn the actors’ (and the audience’s) focus to you…and you will most likely become the butt of a joke for the remainder of the show.

After finding these similarities between two seemingly different venues, I think it would be really interesting if theatre groups performed in sale arenas more often, especially in areas like Augusta County where agriculture is so important.  It might be a way to reach out to people who wouldn’t otherwise go see a Shakespearean play.

–Sarah Swortzel, Archives Intern